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The purpose of the text is to build the concept of anti-indústria and frame it in contemporary discussion on sustainability, ecology, environment (environmentalism) and distribution of wealth and income. To do this, you will need a description of the topics in question, as well as the establishment of relationships between them. The concept of anti-indústria, therefore, rise of the dialectic existing between these terms.
The word φύσις comes from the Greek verb φύω meaning “to grow”, “arise”, “appears”. In this way, the Greek word is commonly translated as “nature” comes from a verb, whereas physis is, for the most part of the ancient Greeks, movement. Therefore, the nature is dynamic, is movement and movement, for your time, it’s change. For Aristotle (Metaphysics, 1049a-1050a), for example, movement is, mainly, the passage of the power state (δυναμις) for the State to Act (ἐνέργεια), i.e. the “power” for the “be”. Are found in Aristotle, other concepts linked to those in the work of generation and corruption (I: 314a — 328b, II: 26 328b-338b), for example, but that are not discussed in this article in your function limitation.
It can be said, therefore, that the Greek ancient (Heraclitus, Aristotle, etc.), nature is a becoming, a continuous change, a passage from one State to another. And the human being? The human being belongs to this nature, this change. However, Aristotle can be perceived the role of the human being as a modifier of nature, through the notion of τέχνη (téchnē), that is, rational and humane action to modify the nature, to produce an object through reason. So, think naureza, since the Greeks, is also thinking about the human being.
The (UN World Commission on Environment and Development) defines sustainability as (“development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”). Of course, this definition already implies the need for a relationship between human beings and nature, the environment. It is not forgotten that the human being of this has its needs and must seek to satisfy them, however, must also think of those who will live in the future, since nature cannot be regarded as something infinite and always available. Everything that exists has its limitations and the human being, to explore nature currently acts as if this were unlimited and available to be exploited, which obviously is not true. Every action has a consequence, soon, everything that humans do has an impact, smaller or larger, in the environment.
There is no way to defend, as Anderson and Leal, that environmental issues can be resolved through the market and that all kinds of government intervention is harmful, since for these authors, the concern of the Government should be limited to property, freedom and life, something very similar to John Locke’s vision. Within this individualist and liberal positioning, there’s no room for a sustainable development, but to a kind of search for individual rights consolidations and confrontation of the shortage across the market. Therefore, according to this free-market environmentalism, attempts to provide an answer for the environmental problems.
Not all eco-thinking liberal attempts to weaken environmental crises as Anderson and Leal do. In the theory of green market of Paul Hawken, environmental responsibility is an integral part of social responsibility, and this does not enter necessarily at odds with business success. Hawken argues that the process of satisfying human needs and desires are withdrawing the planet the ability to produce life biotic. Therefore, there is a recognition of a market vision and change of the economy towards a concern with the environment, although insufficient, because, for him, the market is able to solve even that problem, although defend the creation of “green taxes”.
Another theorist in the context of liberalism is Avner De-Shalit. For him, the economic behavior of the individual, as professing liberalism, is not sufficient to ensure an effective solution to environmental issues, because often your logic and capitalism itself becomes unviable solutions that need Instant implementations. Search, then an explanation using the notions of “price”, set in the economic sense, and “cost”, considered as environmental impact. In this way, demonstrates that there is no way to predict, with a safe margin, cost, which implies the impossibility of working environmental issues only within the market. Recalls, leaning on John Rawls, a neutral Ombudsman model that allow State intervention, but according to a theory of the good that frame every ecosystem and natural goods, beyond their own human being.
Marxism is another important aspect and environmental, for this article, fundamental. James O’Connor is one of its most important representatives and, because of this, samples the position of this current of thought.
O’Connor part of Marx himself to structure your thinking. For O’Connor, two concepts are fundamental to understand the crises of capitalism: overproduction (over-production) and underproduction (under-production). Overproduction is a concept from Marx and which is responsible, according to both authors, by generating economic crises. To summarize such a concept, just think of a capitalist who wants to sell more and spend less to produce. So, this will require more of its capitalist workers will pay smaller wages and, eventually, will have an overproduction. However, this will cause a great economic difficulty, because with low pay, no one will be able to buy. That is, for O’Connor, the first contradiction of capitalism. The second contradiction of capitalism, that an original contribution to O’Connor, occurs through what he calls the underproduction. If overproduction is a social and economic problem, the underproduction is a problem of value in use, conditions of production and the environment, which is embedded in their own production conditions. Capitalism, therefore, by your own nature, is unable to rebuild their production conditions, namely, ecosystems and the human labor force (health). The Foundation of this is the philosophical division between subject and object, for your time, will be the basis for private ownership, key concept in which supports capitalism. Hence, capitalism understands nature as an object and end up moving away from her, thinking the natural resources as things which he has no responsibility.
Overproduction and underproduction end up generating two types of scarcity: first, the shortage from the economic crises based on overproduction of capital, that is, a lack of social nature; Secondly, the scarcity of nature produced by capitalists based on conditions of production in General.
To arrive at the concept of “anti-indústria” will be necessary to say a few words about the environment, global warming, the economy and society, as a concept cannot be thought of without your context.
In 2019, the world has about 8 billion inhabitants and is, according to the UN, 1.5 degree warmer than the pre-industrial era. The sea level don’t rise (of 90 to 120 cm up to 2300), the polar ice caps and glaciers are melting. The atmosphere has your composition modified by gases like methane, mainly from agriculture, nitrous oxide (pesticides) and carbon dioxide (transport, industry). Anyway, nature is being negatively affected and the great agent of this destruction is the human being, but not everyone has the same degree of responsibility.
The UN confirms that after a decade of decline, hunger grows back on the planet (2017). The main causes, according to the same United Nations, conflict and climate changes are, but can also be included political and economic crises in capitalism. In the year 2016, the world had about of 815 million starving people, about 11 percent of the world’s population. In Brazil, 5, 2 million people have spent at least one day of the year without consuming any food. In addition, the planet has 155 million of children under 5 years with growth retardation due to malnutrition. It must be remembered here that hunger is only one of the concepts that point to the problem. Food insecurity, malnutrition and malnutrition are also increasing, despite the denial of certain authorities.
Floods and, especially, cause immense losses droughts on agriculture. The UN said that in 2017, 83% of the losses in this sector are due to drought, and floods the main responsible for the remainder.
There’s no denying the dialectical relationship between the human being and the environment. By destroying the environment, the human being destroys himself. Therefore, new solutions are necessary and urgent that the human species remain to exist and that the Earth will continue to be our address.
There’s no way to think any serious solution without cutting the ties that bind most of humanity to a metaphysical entity, almost tológico, called market. The market is no more than a fiction, a fetish. However, there’s no denying the strength of fiction, even more when you have the help of the media and the opinion formers. Even if the hypothesis that the market has its own laws is accepted, these laws are derived from human beings, your nature or through a tacit Convention, therefore, can be revoked. After all, what counts more: the profit or the survival of the human species? Who does not accept such a question as valid, also doesn’t understand that sustainability relates also to future generations. Therefore, discuss sustainability is discussing a better life now and in the future and ensure, by whatever means necessary, the continuation of the human species.
As set out in the sense of sustainability? Control the abuse of capital, to stop the uncontrolled growth of the human species, get a communion with nature, decrease environmental aggression, undo the harm to the environment in which human lives are a few proposals expressed in that article.
The capital is largely responsible for almost all of the environmental problems and, here, the reason should be given the James O’Connor. To produce one pound of processed products, for example, the industry produces thirty pounds of garbage, not to mention the large amount of water used, water that becomes water vapor, one of the gases responsible for global warming. The ranchers and farmers, in General, contribute to the methane and nitrous oxide to global warming, not to mention in pesticides and antibiotics used. Transport, as well as the industries, pollute the air and alter the atmosphere with carbon dioxide.
John Locke, known as the father of liberalism, said that in a State of nature, private property was born when a person applied your work to something that was considered a common good. So, if a person was working a piece of land, you took care of him, arasse and so on, this earth would be from that person. Therefore, for Locke, the work gives rise to private property, even before the birth of the social or political status. This “myth of property” invented by him is, in fact, an appreciation of private property through work and, with that, going on the idea that the owners are people who have your wealth based on work, I who does not own it means there is a working source or not worked enough. The property can have many origins, in their natural state or politician. Among them, by force, violence, theft, deceit, the work itself, the intelligence, the affection, the murder and so on. However, to talk about things that are common especially, it’s unfair that a capitalist use it for their own gains. Profit, using what belongs to everyone, it is not something that can be considered fair, especially when it’s not reset nor can it be reset. Nature does not belong to the market, nor to capital. We who belong to her. That way, we need actions of the Governments of the world, since the UN little force there, to stop this destruction of the environment and put limits on the capital. At the end of the article, come back to this discussion.
We’re almost eight billion people in the world with a growth rate of 0.33% per year. The planet does not support this growth. So, how to stop it? Many speak of an inhuman, in birth control. It is worth remembering that many who advocate this method have several children and an enviable economic and social position, what makes these children contribute to the destruction of the environment. There is only one effective way to reduce the world’s population, and that’s not the control, but the education. Any index of education proves that. The higher is the index of a country’s education, are their birth rates. Therefore, education is the way out of control this growth. Of course, there is a cost to that, and that cost is not accepted by calling market, requiring, therefore, an action of States in order to walk in this direction.
We must also learn from the people who are in communion with the environment. All these peoples (indigenous Aboriginal, etc) are native peoples and that has a relationship with the natural world very different from our own and, rightfully so, help thinking the environment and present new solutions to environmental problems. Protect these people is to preserve the environment and therefore do belongs to the field of sustainability. Any Government or organization that undermines their native peoples have no notion of ecology or sustainability and world level, should answer for it.
We need, therefore, to reduce to the maximum the aggressions to the environment and try to undo the wrongs that already impose him. The first step has already been appointed, controlling the market, capital and causing the world’s Governments to manage serious and coordinated the capital, imposing limits on your growth. The second step, pointed to here, will be the anti-indústria.
The concept of anti-indústria can be thought of in two ways: lato sensu and stricto sensu, however, first, need to be defined. Anti-what industry apart, so deliberate, the harm generated by industry, and the industry term that encompasses any activity that negatively affects the environment, including how agriculture and livestock, for example. Thus, Governments, non-governmental organizations, civil society, all should require the creation of anti-indústrias.
In a broad sense, actions that help reduce inequalities, education (as exposed here), the preservation of native peoples and others of the genre can be considered anti-indústrias because, as we have seen, help preserve the environment and promote a social and environmental justice, since all belong to nature. Who pollutes the air, turns water into water vapo, destroys the Woods is taking over something that’s not his drinking, so what is the other. Is an environmental benefit that overlaps more traditional asset, something that neither we nor the environment can support.
In the strict sense, a anti-indústria is a creation of human ingenuity so you can undo the damage caused by the industry (in the sense of this text). Therefore, the capital should be required to research and construction of technological responses to all of these environmental problems that ended up creating capital. No more how to develop the technology only for profit, we must turn it into life and preservation. Unfortunately, there is only one way to do this, Taming the capital and limiting your freedom, since the lack of that limitation entails a much greater limitation of freedom of society and of individuals.
Alexander Lane da Silva